View of West Side from Ka'ena Point

KAʻENA POINT HIKE: NORTH SHORE SPOTLIGHT

Wondering where to hike on North Shore? Want to explore one of Oʻahu’s most wild and rugged coastlines? The Kaʻena Point hike has wildlife, geology, and history that every visitor to the North Shore of Oʻahu should experience.

View of the West Side from Kaʻena Point

What to expect

The Kaʻena Point Hike is 5 miles round trip along generally flat terrain. Going at a leisurely pace, it is good to budget approximately 3-4 hours for the entire walk. Put simply, this hike is flat, long, and hot. You’ll notice at the start of the hike, you can follow a straight dirt road closer to the mountains that will be the shortest distance to the point. Or, you can follow along the coastal trails to the right. I recommend walking along the coast on the way, and taking the main road back. It will be easy to distinguish between the two.

Expect to see rugged, wild beach coves, visiting seabirds, monk seals, and whales in the winter months. At the end of the walk you will find an enclosed Natural Area Preserve. Inside, there’s large seabird colonies and many visiting monk seals at the point.

The history of Kaʻena Point

Koʻolau and Waiʻanae have been thought to be the main two volcanoes that make up the landmass of Oʻahu. However, in 2014 scientists discovered a third volcano–the Kaʻena volcano. This volcano emerged over 3 million years ago and once extended from Northwest Oʻahu out further into sea. This means the land of Kaʻena Point is extremely ancient. In fact, there are fossilized coral heads that line the point that are thought to be over 130,000 years old.

A map of the three original Oʻahu volcanoes. Photo Credit: J. Sinton, et al., UH SOEST

Several hundred years after the arrival of Polynesians to Hawaiʻi, the remote stretch of Kaʻena was eventually colonized. The northern portion of the Kaʻena Point Hike was part of the Waialua moku (district) and more specifically, the Kaʻena ahupua’a (roughly translated as a self-sufficient community). Within the Kaʻena ahupuaʻa, archaeologists have discovered ancient fire pits, burial sites, and prehistoric paving for houses (known as ‘ili ‘ili) suggesting that despite the hot, dry nature of this area, it once sustained a permanent and robust community of Native Hawaiians.

Many Native Hawaiians lost their lands in the “Great” Mahele and the ahupua’a system was dissolved after the arrival of Europeans. In the 19th century, Hawaiʻi was being rapidly industrialized in order to develop various crop production, especially sugar cane and pineapples. However, mobilization was difficult and moving product was a laborious undertaking. In 1888, Benjamin Franklin Dillingham (father of Walter Dillingham, the creator of the Ala Wai Canal), began construction on a railway that would extend around the island to help move crops, materials, and workers. The railway eventually wrapped around Kaʻena Point until it was mostly destroyed in 1946 following the Aleutian Islands Earthquake. On the West side of the hike you can still see some pieces of the train tracks.

The Oʻahu Railway and Land Railroad extended along this dirt path. There has not been any road or railway around the point since the railroad’s destruction in 1947.

How to get there

There are two ways to reach Kaʻena Point. Therefore, it is very important you know if you are going to the West or the North entrance. Because Kaʻena Point is home to a protected Natural Area Reserve, you cannot drive around the point. As such, each entrance to the point is many miles away from the other (over an hour!), as you can see in the below map. I’ve had many issues meeting friends for this hike who went to the West entrance instead of the North. This blog is about the hike to the point from the North Shore entrance (for the google maps directions click here).

Note how far away these two entrances are! It is not an easy mistake to correct if you go to the incorrect entrance.

Arriving to the Kaʻena Point Hike

The drive along the North Shore to reach Kaʻena Point is worth the trip itself. You will drive down Farrington Highway through Waialua and Mokuleia, two of the less-developed neighborhoods on the island. Feel free to pull over and enjoy some private beach time at Mokuleia Beach Park on your way to the point. It is a wonderful spot to relax and do some snorkeling. Once you reach the end of Farrington Highway, you’ll see a gate and a small parking lot. Pull in here to park.

Note, this is an older satellite photo. There is a gate at the end of the road and a small container building to the left of the parking lot.

As you begin the walk along the coast, you’ll see lots of spectacular bays nearly untouched by other humans. Do not expect to actually get in the water, however, because the rip-tides and waves in this area are some of the most dangerous on the island. It would be extremely rare to see anyone swimming along the hike.

View of one of the coves called “The Ponds” along the Kaʻena Point Hike

Along the Kaʻena Point Hike

As you move up the coast, you’ll encounter breathtaking views of the Waiʻanae “mountain range” to your left. Note, this is not actually a mountain range, but the exterior cone of the extinct Waiʻanae volcano that formed over 2 million years ago. The exterior of the cone collapsed into the ocean hundreds of thousands of years ago, leaving just half of the volcanic cone still standing. Due to millions of years of erosion and rain, this volcanic cone looks like other traditional mountain ranges with multiple peaks and valleys.

Waianae Volcano during the Ka'ena Point Hike
The “mountains” along Kaʻena Point are actually the ancient remains of the Waiʻanae Volcano

The Natural Area Reserve – Predator proof fence

After walking about 2 miles, you will see a large and impressive fence wrapping around the tip of the island. This fence was installed in 2011 to protect the resident seabird populations, namely the Laysan Albatross and Shearwater birds which nest in and on the ground. Before the construction of this fence, invasive species like rats, mice, dogs, and especially feral cats were decimating the local bird populations. After the fence was installed, local plants and birds have enjoyed a boom in their population and deaths from invasive species has plummeted. This fence encloses nearly 60 acres of land and is managed by the Department of Land and Natural Resources which regularly removes invasive species and tracks native flora and fauna growth within the NAR.

The predator-proof fence that lines the Natural Area Reserve at the end of the Kaʻena Point Hike

cultural Site #1: Ka Leina a ka ʻUhane

After entering the Natural Area Reserve, you will see on your right a distinctive, large, sloping limestone rock. This rock is the sacred leina a ka ʻuhane, which roughly means “leaping off place of the soul.” There is a leina a ka ʻuhane on most main Hawaiian islands, and it is typically found on the northwestern point of the land closest to the shore. It is thought in Hawaiian religion that upon death, the ʻuhane (spirit) leaves the kino (body) and often wanders the land before departing from the leina a ka ʻuhane to enter the afterlife. It is important to treat this site with the utmost reverence and respect. Do not approach or touch the rock, and take photographs at a respectful distance. This rock represents the most sacred of processes–the transition from life to death.

Ka leina a ka ʻuhane: A sacred symbol of transition from the mortal world to the afterlife.

The albatross of Kaʻena Point

Once you pass ka leina a ka ʻuhane, if you are visiting from October-June, you will encounter the most charismatic residents of the Kaʻena Point Hike—the Laysan Albatross. These birds are winter visitors to Kaʻena, where they return to the point year after year in order to nest. The albatross are incredible creatures to view up close you will see plenty of them at the point if you visit during their nesting season. During the rest of the year, they spend their lives in the open ocean in the North Pacific feeding. When they come to the point to nest, they lay their eggs directly next to the walking path. Meanwhile, the albatross swoop above you, often pausing to look you in the eye. These are truly magical creatures and their presence makes the hike to Kaʻena truly memorable.

Cultural Site #2: Pohaku o Kauaʻi

After passing through the paths lined with albatross, you will follow the sandy paths to the point. This is marked by a tall light post and a couple small bunker-like structres. Upon reaching this light post, you will look down and see the end of Ka’ena Point. The last rock in the far distance is pohaku o kaua’i.

The last rock at the end of this point is pohaku o Kauaʻi

One legend states that this pohaku (rock) was thrown by the demi-god Haupu from the shores of Kauaʻi. Allegedly, chief Kaʻena had called all his fishermen out to Kaʻena Point to engage in a large-scale fishing trip. They lit torches and shouted into the night with large nets laid around the point. The plan was to scare fish into the nets. However, Haupu was awoken from his slumber on the coast of Kauaʻi and mistook the lights and shouting to mean men from Oʻahu were coming to invade Kauaʻi. To protect the island, he flung a rock towards to commotion, where it landed in the middle of the group of men fishing, killing many of the fishermen. The rock remains there to this day and is known simply as the “rock of Kauaʻi” (to read the entire story visit Sacred Texts).

Hawaiian Monk Seals

Finally, at the point, you are very likely to see one, if not several, Hawaiian Monk Seals. You can read more about this species on our other blog. The Hawaiian Monk Seal is the most endangered marine mammal in the United States, with only 1400 individuals left. There are only approximately 45 on the island of Oʻahu, so seeing one is certainly a treat. The seals love to visit Kaʻena Point, with often multiple seals crowding the beach at once.

Several monk seals interacting at Kaʻena Point

If you are lucky enough to see a Hawaiian Monk Seal stay at least 50 feet back. Do NOT approach these seals for selfies. Please note, many people get too close to these seals, post a picture of themselves with the seal on social media, and are then fined by the Department of Natural Land and Resources for harassment. Don’t be that guy! Give them their distance. Also, please do not yell, whistle, or otherwise bother the seals. I have seen multiple instances of individuals yelling at the seals so it will “look” at the camera. This is illegal. Altering the behavior of an endangered species can count as harassment. Let them rest and make sure to tell others to do the same.

Instead, if you do see a seal, please call Hawaiian Marine Animal Response at 1-888-476-HMAR and let them know the size, description, and behavior of the seal you have observed. HMAR tracks all seal sightings and provides informational data about these animals to scientists.

The walk back

If you walked up to the point along the coast, I recommend heading back down along the main road. At the time of this blog, cars are not permitted to drive in Kaʻena Point due to erosion. However, eventually cars with special permits will again be allowed to drive down this road to fish. This road is the fastest way back to the parking lot, but watch out for the vehicles you’ll share the road with. It is not as scenic, but at this point you are likely a bit tired and dehydrated and are probably ready to head home or out to lunch. If you are really into walking long distances, you can walk past the point and all the way to the West side entrance and back again, for a 10 mile total loop.

Kaʻena Point is a unique and fascinating hike that’s great for those who don’t want to do a strenuous up-hill climb, those who love wildlife, and for those looking for something off-the-beaten-path. It is truly a once-in-a-lifetime experience.

After your Kaʻena Point Hike, be sure to check out our North Shore tours at Turtle Bay to continue exploring the historic North Shore of Oʻahu!

THE INTRODUCED BIRDS OF OʻAHU

In the lowlands of Oʻahu you’ll find birds from Indonesia, Brazil, and Japan–but almost no birds from Hawaiʻi. Why are our local birds from everywhere but here? Learn about the birds you will encounter during the Hawaii Walks Waikiki Walking Tour and elsewhere around Oʻahu!

An introduced rose-ringed parakeet sits on a tree branch. Photo:  Maxx Rush on Unsplash. These birds are common during out Hawaii Walks Waikiki Walking Tour.

Ancient Hawaiʻi : A diverse and robust aviary

The first Polynesians likely arrived to Hawaiʻi around 1200 AD. These explorers likely arrived from Tahiti and The Marquesas Islands in two separate migration events. When these first settlers arrived, they encountered dozens of rare, endemic birds not found anywhere else on Earth. Due to the absence of other birds or predators that were common on continental lands these birds evolved into unique species. In fact, there were upwards of 70 different endemic land birds before the arrival of humans. However, now there is only one, the nēnē.

An endemic Hawaiian Goose, the nēnē, takes flight in Hosmer’s Grove, Maui. Photo: Hawai’i Walks

Why the native birds disappeared

Upon the arrival of humans, birds encountered this new predator for the first time. Land birds were slow, full of protein, and had little to no fear of humans. As a result, the first settlers consumed a large percentage of these birds as a source of meat. The large number of bird bones found in ancient Polynesian caves corroborate this finding. Sadly, after the arrival of humans they were never to be found anywhere again.

Artist depiction of a Moa-nalo, an ancient flightless bird that most likely went extinct in the late 1700’s. Photo: Apokryltaros at English Wikipedia

Non-human threats to Native birds

Not all birds died by the direct hands of humans. When the first humans arrived to Hawaiʻi, they brought with them rats, dogs, and pigs. These animals likely preyed on ground birds as well as forest birds. Because rats had the ability to climb trees and attack nests, they were particularly damaging to the bird population. As a result, many native birds had their eggs eaten by rats.

A rat sits on the ground. Rats most likely decimated the population of nesting ground birds by attacking their eggs. Photo by Zdeněk Macháček on Unsplash

Humans also brought with them what would prove to be the most dangerous threat to native birds yet–the mosquito. Introduced in 1827, The Southern House Mosquito carried two deadly diseases, Avian Malaria and Avian Pox. Because Native Hawaiian birds had no exposure to other birds or mammalian species, they had no immunity to these diseases and native birds began a quick fall towards extinction. However, mosquitos cannot live in lower temperatures. As a result, birds in lowland Oʻahu quickly died out, while birds in higher elevations survived. This is the primary reason there are very few endemic and indigenous birds in Waikiki. These birds are usually found exclusively on the high-slopes of volcanoes like Mauna Kea on Big Island and Haleakalā on Maui.

An endemic ʻIʻiwi bird sits on a ʻOhia branch on the slopes of Haleakalā in Maui. These birds used to be found throughout the islands, but now live exclusively in high-altitude climates where mosquitos cannot live.

Climate change

While native birds can still be found in high-altitude locations throughout the Hawaiian Islands, climate change brings about a new threat. As global temperatures increase, this means the “mosquito line” will effectively shift higher since temperatures overall will increase allowing them to reach higher altitudes than ever before. Current models adjusted for climate change suggest that, because of the growing encroachment of mosquitos, the native Kiwikiu could experience extinction in just 25 years.

A native Kiwikiu, which has a population of just around 300 birds. Photo: The Maui Forest Bird Recovery Project

the introduction of new birds

As the native bird population has declined, the number of introduced species has greatly increased. The greatest contributor to this was most likely the Hui Manu (“Bird club”). This group of wealthy bird enthusiasts wanted to beautify the islands with colorful songbirds in the early 20th century. Since so many of the beautiful native birds had been killed off, these European settlers felt that there weren’t enough birds to beautify their garden. To fix this, they imported tens of thousands of birds, selected based on their looks and singing ability. Most of these birds further hastened the decline of native birds, as they out-competed native birds for food and eventually spread to overtake their forest habitats.

A drawing of four birds introduced by the Hui Manu. These birds are now wide-spread throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Can you identify these birds? They are common during our Hawaii Walks Waikiki Nature Walking Tour. Photo: Honolulu Magazine

Escaped parrots

In Kapiʻolani Park, it’s likely you will hear the distinctive squawk of the rose-ringed parakeet echoing high above you. These birds have drastically altered the landscape of the Hawaiian Islands in just a few years. The first of these birds escaped from a bed-and-breakfast in Kauai in the 60’s, with the population slowly increasing until a rapid exponential growth over the past decade. These birds have been decimating local crops, increasing the spread of Avian Malaria, and annoying residents with their loud calls. Currently, there is no removal plan in place in Hawaiʻi for this species, and as a result, many people have taken matters into their own hands and have admitted to shooting the birds at will. Even with this renegade bird-justice, however, the population continues to climb.

A Rose-Ringed Parakeet dangles upside down while consuming a fruit on a tree. See this bird during our Hawaii Walks Waikiki Nature Walking Tour. Photo by spandan pattanayak on Unsplash

Where are we now?

The trends we see of declining native bird populations coupled with increasing numbers of invasive birds will most likely continue. However, conservationists have been working hard to stabilize native bird populations. The Maui Forest Bird Recovery Project has seen successes with their Kiwikiu conservation work, and they continue to develop additional measures of protection for the birds. The Kauai Forest Bird Recovery Project is best known for its conservation efforts of the Akikiki. In addition, avian biologists from the ʻAlalā Project have successfully brought back the Native Hawaiian crow, the ʻAlalā, from the brink of extinction and are observing an increase in the population due to their conservation efforts.

The future of Birds in Hawaiʻi

The future of native birds in Hawaiʻi will depend on our action or inaction as stewards of the islands. Slowing climate change and supporting local bird conservation agencies will be important to ensure we do not lose any additional birds to extinction. See below for a list of bird conservation groups that could use financial donations or volunteers to keep their work going strong!

Our best suggestion to support native birds is to learn about their struggles, donate to their cause, and most importantly, don’t forget to look up! Every bird above you has a story….

A native ʻElepaio. Photo: US Fish and Wildlife